The endometrium is the tissue that is prepared each month for the development of a child and, if a child is not conceived, is excreted with menstrual bleeding. It covers the inside of the uterus like a carpet. Sometimes overgrowth of the endometrium results in structures raised above the surface. These structures are called endometrial polyps. Polyps can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters. Endometrial polyps cause irregular menstrual bleeding. They are more common in menopausal women.

What are the causes of endometrial polyps?

They are more common in conditions that cause excess estrogen (female hormone) such as uterine thickening. They are more common in polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, hormone-secreting tumors, tamoxifen use for breast cancer and familial cancer diseases.

Polyps smaller than one centimeter can disappear, while tumors larger than one centimeter do not disappear and require surgical treatment. Polyps can develop into cancer in 1.7% of premenopausal women and 5.4% of postmenopausal women.

How to recognize them?

It is suspected with the patient’s history. Polyps are often seen on ultrasound. It can be seen more clearly in saline infusion sonography, i.e. ultrasound examination performed by introducing water into the uterus. The main method of diagnosis and treatment is hysteroscopy. Hysteroscopy involves looking into the uterus with a camera and, if necessary, removing the polyp with surgical instruments.