The HPV virus is the main cause of cervical cancer, anal cancer, penile cancer and vulvar (external genitalia) cancer. The DNA of the HPV virus is found in 99% of cervical cancers. In addition to cancer, HPV causes serious health problems by causing warts (condyloma) on the hands, feet, larynx, anus, penis, vulva and vagina. HPV is a virus that is clearly known to cause cancer

Is there immunity after HPV disease?

HPV enters through microcracks that form during sexual intercourse. Such cracks almost always occur during sexual intercourse. They are smaller than a millimeter, so they are not noticeable. Once in the body through the cracks, the virus enters the nuclei of cells and starts to multiply. The virus does not enter the blood vessels. With the genes it carries, the virus neutralizes the cells that tell the immune system where the virus is. It can therefore escape from immune cells and white blood cells. The patient does not develop an adequate and long-lasting antibody response against the virus. In addition, the virus can remain dormant in the cells in a latent state for a long time. It can revive and cause infection in situations such as illness and stress that weaken the immune system.

How can I achieve HPV immunity?

It is possible to achieve permanent immunity to the HPV virus through vaccination. HPV vaccines first became available in 2006. Since then, they have been approved in more than 100 countries. Many countries include the vaccine in their national vaccination programs and vaccinate girls and boys free of charge. The vaccine contains no live virus. It contains virus-like particles that are part of the virus. Vaccines that contain virus-like particles but do not produce the effect of the virus, only activate the body’s immune system, that is, initiate the production of HPV-type antibodies and make the person resistant to HPV for a long time. It is not possible to get sick with the vaccine, it does not contain virus DNA.

Which diseases does the vaccine protect against?

The vaccine is approved by the European (EMA) and American (FDA) pharmaceutical authorities. It protects against cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer (HPV-related type), penile cancer and anus cancer. It is also effective against warts in the genital area and anus. The protection rate against cervical cancer is 98%.

Who can be vaccinated?

There are no specific barriers to vaccination. It is not recommended for pregnant women. Young girls and boys can be vaccinated after the age of 9. The vaccine is more effective when administered before first intercourse. If the patient is infected with some HPV types after intercourse, it is not therapeutic against those types. It is protective against the types it does not catch. There is no upper limit for vaccination. It is not recommended after the age of forty-five. Vaccination of boys is recommended for wart protection and to prevent transmission to future partners.

How many doses should be administered and where is it available?

Vaccination is given in 2 doses before the age of 15 and 3 doses at older ages. Vaccination can be given at 0. 1. 6 or 0. 2. 6 months.  Short intervals between vaccinations are not recommended. The interval between the first and second dose should be at least one month and between the second and third dose at least 3 months.

The 4-valent vaccine is available from pharmacies. Since the 9-valent vaccine is not yet available in our country, it can be obtained from the Foreign Drug Supply Office of the Chamber of Pharmacists.